What is Digital Signature? and how does it works :

What is Digital Signature?

 Digital Signature is the digital form of a person’s signature.  Digital Signature is also called electronic signature.  The digital signature certificate is in the form of a ‘USB token’, which is approved by the Digital Signature Certificate Controller of Certifying Authorities (CCA).

A Digital Signature Certificate is an electronic “password” that provides a high level of security to the information exchanged in a Digital Signature Certificate (DSC) online transaction.  Digital Signature Certificate contains personal information of the user (your name, address, date of birth, information related to Aadhar card and PAN card, email address, pin code, state name, country name, date of issue of digital signature certificate and certified  Name of the authority).

 Digital Signature is a proof that the document is verified and no tampering has been done with it since its creation.  Digital Signature is mostly used in emails, business, software distribution, tax filling, tenders etc.

How does digital signature work?

 Digital Signatures use a special type of protocol.  This protocol is called Public Key Infrastructure (PKI).  Using Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) an individual or organization can exchange data securely over the Internet.  In this, two types of keys are used, Private Key and Public Key, which are mathematically related.  Digital Signature works on the method of Public Key Cryptography, hence it is also called Asymmetric Cryptography.  Let us know how these keys work.

Private Key :

 The private key is the main security of the digital signature.  This key is used to decrypt the message.  It is kept secret, hence it is called Secret Private Key.  When digital signature is done on a document, that electronic sign is generated by this key.

 In this process, tasks like matching documents and checking details are done through mathematical algorithms.  This process is called hash.  If the private key of the signer reaches any other person, then that person can misuse it by creating a false digital signature in the name of the holder.

Public Key :

 The first key is to encrypt the message.  It is kept public, hence it is called Public Key.  When the recipient receives this document, he can verify this document using the Public Key received along with the document.  When the recipient uses the public key then again the hash code gets decrypted by the recipient’s public key.

 If the hash code matches the decryption of the recipient’s public key, it means that the document has not been tampered with and it is acceptable by the holder.  But if that code is not found from the public

key, then in such a situation it is believed that either someone has tampered with that document or that document has been sent by some other person and that document is considered fake.

 In this way, Digital Signature verifies the identity of the issuer of the document, by whose name the document has been signed and at the same time it is a proof of acceptance of the digital signature holder, which the holder can never falsify.  Every person’s private key and public key are unique.

Types of Digital Signature Certificates :

 Digital signature is divided into three categories.  Everyone has different tasks.  If you use Digital Signature then you must also know which signature is used for which purpose.  Let us know what these are and what are they used for?

Class 1 :

 Class 1 digital signatures are used for private or personal purposes.  It authenticates the email identification of the holder.  This is done for low value transactions, so there is no special need for proof of identity.

 Class 2 :

 Class 2 digital signatures are used in various government institutions.  Like – It is also used for income tax returns in Income Tax Department, filing documents in ministries and corporate departments etc.

Class 3 :

 Class 3 Digital Signature Certificate (DSC) is issued directly by a Certifying Authority (CA).  This indicates a high level of orthostaticity.  In this, the applicant proves his identity by presenting himself before the registration authority, hence it is more secure than both Class 1 and Class 2.  Digital signature is used for e-tendering or e-auction in service related government departments, such as – Railways, Banks, Electricity Department, Road Transport Authority etc.

This type of DSC is used for the purpose of establishing identity in electronic commerce and trading.  This type of DSC can also be used in trademark registration.

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